What is Diabetes Symptoms and Treatment

by | Dec 22, 2021 | Diabetes | 0 comments

Diabetes also is known by the name diabetes mellitus is used to describe a group of metabolic diseases where the person has a high blood glucose level either because the body’s cell is not responding properly to insulin, insulin production is inadequate or due to both reasons. The excess blood glucose passes out of the body through urine. Hence even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their growth requirement and essential energy.

There are three types of diabetes:

In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin that is enough for the proper functioning of the body. Most of the cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.

In Type 3 is Gestational diabetes, this diabetes affects females during pregnancy. Diabetes is a metabolism disorder.

Causes of Diabetes

Diabetes may be caused because of various reasons such as family history, genetic makeup, ethnicity, environmental factors and health. The causes for the three types of diabetes are different.

Type 1 diabetes causes: The following causes may trigger Type 1 diabetes:

  • Viral or bacterial infection
  • Unidentified component causing an autoimmune reaction
  • Chemical toxins within food

Type 2 diabetes: Some of the main causes of Type 2 diabetes are:

  • Obesity
  • Bad diet
  • Living a sedentary lifestyle
  • Increasing age

Type 3 Gestational diabetes causes: The causes that increase the chances of developing the condition are:

  • Overweight or obese
  • Family history of gestational diabetes
  • Have had a large baby
  • Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome

Other causes of diabetes are:

  • Pancreatitis or pancreatectomy
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).
  • Glucagonoma
  • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Steroid-induced diabetes

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes may include:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Increased urine output
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Hunger
  • Skin problems
  • Yeast infection
  • Slow-healing wounds
  • Numbness or tingling in the feet or toes
  • Eye complications
  • Hypertension
  • Gum disease
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Gastroparesis
  • Peripheral arterial disease i.e. pain in the e.g., tingling and sometimes problems while walking properly

In the case of gestational diabetes, most of the time there are no symptoms. However, the most common gestational diabetes symptoms may include increased thirst, hunger and urination.

Preventive measures

Having Type 1 diabetes will put you at greater risk with regard to health complications such as blindness, kidney failure, infection and so on. However, by controlling blood sugar levels such complications can be kept at bay. Making healthy lifestyle changes such as exercising regularly; eating a healthy meal, taking diabetes drugs on time can reduce complications to a large extent.

Some of the preventive measures that can be followed are:

  • Manage your weight by reducing excess fat particularly in the abdomen area.
  • Exercising regularly is a must so as to reduce blood glucose levels, manage weight and also improve cholesterol and blood pressure.
  • Eat a healthy and well-balanced diet. It is best to reduce the amount of fat in your diet, especially trans fat and saturated fats. Eating more vegetables, fruits and high fibre food can do wonders to your body. It is essential to cut back on salt.
  • Limit process food and takeaway. It is best to cook food using fresh ingredients than using processed meals high in fat, salt and kilojoules.
  • Quit smoking and consumption of alcohol as alcohol increases blood pressure and triglyceride levels and also leads to weight gain. Smokers are more likely to develop diabetes than non-smokers.
  • Leading a stress-free life is very important as stress is known to be a major reason for diabetes. This can be done by adopting certain lifestyle changes.
  • It is essential to go for regular checkups so that any irregularities can be diagnosed early and preventive measures can be taken.
  • It is recommended that you control your blood pleasure with a balanced diet, regular exercise, weighting right. High blood pressure increases the chances of having diabetes.

Myths and facts:

Myth: You can catch diabetes from anyone

Fact: Diabetes is not contagious. It can’t be caught like flu or cold. Genetic ink and erratic lifestyle often lead to type 2 diabetes.

Myth: People with diabetes can’t eat sweets

Fact: If sweets are eaten as a part of a healthy meal plan or combined with exercise and not very regularly and having a small portion is not likely to cause any harm. However, take the advice from your doctor if you want to indulge in it occasionally.

Myth: People with diabetes have to eat special diabetic food

Fact: A healthy meal that is recommended for the diabetic is the same as a healthy meal for any normal person.

Myth: Fruits are healthy food hence you can eat as much as you wish.

Fact: Fruit is healthy and contains lots of minerals and vitamins. However, it is best to talk to your dietician about the amount and type of fruits that you should be having in case of diabetes.

Diagnosis of disease

Usually, doctors suggest the patients undergo blood tests to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes. All the blood tests involve drawing blood at a health care provider’s office and sending the sample to the lab for analysis purposes. Testing of blood helps the doctors to find and treat diabetes before any complication takes place. Any one of the following tests can be prescribed to identify if the person has diabetes or not:

  • An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  • A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test
  • An A1C test, also called HbA1c, the haemoglobin A1c, or glycohemoglobin test
  • Random plasma glucose (RPG) test

Treatment for Diabetes

The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to bring blood sugar to a normal level. In case of type 1 diabetes it can be treated

  • By taking insulin
  • By doing exercise as recommended by the doctor
  • By making lifestyle changes and leading a stress-free life
  • By following the diet as fixed by the doctor. Diabetes patients are prescribed a nutritious but low in cholesterol and fat diet. They are recommended to control the intake of sugar.

Type 2 diabetes treatment can be done in the following ways.

  • By doing exercise
  • By reducing stress level
  • By reducing weight
  • By making meals at regular intervals
  • By doing exercise as instructed by the doctor
  • By taking oral medication when the measures above fail to control blood sugar level
  • By taking insulin if oral medication becomes ineffective

Diabetes medicine side effects

Those suffering from diabetes need to take diabetes drugs to keep them under control. However, regular consumption of diabetes medicines can result in several side effects. Some of the most common diabetes medicine side effects include:

  • Low blood sugar
  • Upset stomach
  • Skin rash
  • Weight gain
  • Stomach upset
  • kidney complications
  • Dizziness
  • Gas
  • Diarrhoea
  • Risk of liver disease
  • Swelling of ankles and legs

Steps to improve health

  • Eat a healthy diabetic diet on schedule and follow the advice of a diabetic educator or your doctor religiously.
  • Start exercising for a few minutes a day of vigorous but low impact activity. Walking is also recommended.
  • Take medications on time and visit your doctor at regular intervals and get laboratory tests done at regular intervals so as to identify if there are any serious issues.
  • Stop smoking and drinking alcohol

Important things to know

Even after following all the restrictions and taking medications, if the situations persist you must consult your doctor again and seek his advice.

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