Coronary heart disease overview

30 Jan
By Marie

Heart muscles require uninterrupted and sufficient supply of blood to pump blood. The coronary arteries which run along the surface of the heart, pick up oxygen-rich blood from the aorta and furnish the heart. In coronary heart disease, a combination of calcium, fatty material, proteins and inflammatory cells deposit along the inner walls of the coronary arteries. This leads to the formation of plaques. They differ in size. They are soft and spongy on the inside and hard on the outside.

Formation of plaques within the coronary arteries makes them narrow. This hinders smooth flow of blood through them and the heart does not receive adequate oxygenated blood. As a result, the heart muscle cells starve for oxygen and soon they start dying. This damage is permanent and can’t be reversed. The slowing of blood flow may cause angina or chest pain. If the plaques totally block a coronary artery, it may lead to a heart attack or a fatal rhythm disturbance (sudden cardiac arrest). Coronary heart disease is a major cause of disability and death.

A human heart is four-chambered that is it consists of four separate compartments: an atrium/auricle and ventricle on the right and an atrium/auricle and a ventricle on the left side of the heart.

Veins collect de-oxygenated or carbon-dioxide-rich blood coming from all the body parts and pour it into the right atrium. This blood then flows into the right ventricle, from where it is pumped to the lungs for purification. After purification, the oxygen-rich blood enters the left atrium. From there it flows into the left ventricle and is pumped at high pressure into the arteries. The entire process makes one heartbeat.

The pumping action of heart requires great energy in order to pump blood to each and every cell of the body. The heart muscles need to contract with great energy to keep the blood flowing throughout the body and for that, they must receive plenty of oxygen and nutrient supply coming via the coronary arteries. These arteries are usually quite flexible, elastic and strong.

There are 3 major coronary arteries, each one of them supplying different regions of the heart. The right coronary artery provides oxygenated blood to the right ventricle of the heart and a lower portion of the left ventricle. The left coronary artery supplies the left side of the heart. It is divided into LAD and LCX. The left anterior descending (LAD) branch furnishes the front part of the heart and the left circumflex (LCX) branch furnishes the left lateral and back side of the heart.

In children, the inner lining of the coronary arteries is very smooth and allows easy flow of blood. As a person ages, the cholesterol and calcium contents form plaque deposits along the inner walls of these arteries, making them thicker and less elastic.

As blood hits the plaques during each heartbeat, they may crack open. This promotes blood clotting. Blood clots may further decrease the blood flow, causing severe chest pain (angina), or complete blockage of the artery.

Coronary heart disease causes and symptoms

Coronary heart disease causes

Coronary heart disease can occur due to any problem with the coronary arteries which prevents the heart from getting sufficient oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood. Several factors speed up the deposition of fat and calcium along the inner lining of coronary arteries. This makes them thicker and less elastic. This is known as atherosclerosis and is the most common cause of coronary heart disease.

Atherosclerosis or narrowing of the coronary arteries obstructs and slows down the flow of blood supplying the heart muscles. This makes the heart muscles deficient in oxygen and nutrients. Lack of adequate blood is called ischemia, so coronary heart disease is sometimes called as ischemic heart disease.

There are several risk factors which are related to the cause of coronary heart disease. The following are the most common:

  • Inheritance or heredity: Coronary heart disease runs in the family.
  • Use of tobacco: This includes chewing tobacco and smoking any form of tobacco such as, cigarettes, cigars, pipes, etc.
  • High blood cholesterol: Variations in normal levels of cholesterol in the blood that is, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol.
  • High-fat diet
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Lack of regular exercise
  • Emotional stress
  • Type A personality characterized by impatience, aggressiveness, competitiveness, etc.

Coronary heart disease symptoms

The common symptoms of coronary heart disease include:

  • Angina pectoris which is a condition in which chest pain arises due to exertion. It may be relieved by rest.
  • Shortness of breath on exertion
  • Pain in jaw, back or arms, especially on left side of the body, either during exertion or rest.
  • Palpitations which include irregular, rapid or strong heartbeats due to exertion, agitation or illness.
  • Light-headedness, dizziness, or fainting
  • Weakness on exertion or at rest
  • Arrhythmia or irregular heartbeat

The most devastating symptom of coronary heart disease is sudden and unexpected cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest takes place when the heart stops beating, suddenly and without any warning.

Cardiac arrest usually occurs in people who have had suffered from heart attacks, but it may occur as the first symptom of coronary heart disease.

Most people display some symptoms or discomfort.

Symptoms generally occur while doing some activity or exercise. This is because the coronary arteries are blocked and fail in meeting the increased demand for nutrients and oxygen by the heart muscles.

When to seek medical care?

Inform your healthcare provider if you notice any of the following symptoms, which suggest angina (chest pain):

  • Chest pain, fullness, pressure or a feeling of indigestion after physical exertion, which may not be relieved by rest
  • Pain in shoulder or arm involving left, right, or both sides during physical or mentally stressful activity
  • Pain in jaw which is unexplained by another cause like, a sore tooth
  • Shortness of breath after exertion or walking uphill
  • Fainting spell which lasts for a few seconds to a few minutes. It happens when the brain doesn’t get sufficient oxygen.
  • unexplained vomiting, nausea or, sweating
  • Dizziness or light-headedness
  • Palpitations

The most important factor is time. Each year thousands of people die because they ignore these symptoms and do not seek medical attention on quickly. This may prove to be the difference between life and death.

The most common symptoms of heart attack are as follows:

  • Continuous or prolonged chest pain, chest pressure, or a feeling of heartburn
  • Pain in shoulder or arm (left or right) or abdomen. It doesn’t go away on it’s own.
  • Shortness of breath after minimal activity or while resting
  • Blackout spells
  • Unexplained, excessive sweating, nausea, or vomiting
  • Recurrent chest pain or uneasiness at rest

Exams and tests

The symptoms of coronary heart disease are uncertain which means they can be caused due to many different conditions. During diagnosis, your healthcare provider will ask you questions about your symptoms, the medications you take, your general health and specific medical problems and, your medical and surgical history. He will also do a physical examination, blood test, an ECG or electrocardiogram, lab tests and imaging tests like X-ray or CT scan.

  • Blood tests are done to check your blood cells, the chemical composition of your blood, etc. to predict a heart attack.
  • ECG is a painless test which is done to determine the electrical activity of the heart. The test gives clues about the underlying cause of cardiac symptoms.
  • Chest X-ray can show abnormal changes in the size or shape of the heart.

If you are diagnosed to have angina symptoms or your healthcare provider infer that you have a coronary heart disease, you may have an exercise (treadmill) stress test. In this test, ECG tracings are measured before, during and, after stressing the heart by exercise. The accuracy of this test is 60-70%.

If a blockage is found in the coronary arteries then, you may undergo a nuclear (radionuclide) stress test. This test uses a radioactive tracer to identify the quantity of blood flowing into different parts of the heart muscles. This test is expensive but it’s quite successful.

More exams and tests


Echocardiography is based on SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) technique. It uses sound waves to create an image of the heart as it beats. The movements of the ventricular walls are compared when at rest and stress. The heart can be stressed either by exercise on a treadmill or by administration of a drug. The motion of the walls drops during stress if the coronary artery supplying that part of the heart is severely blocked.

Electron beam CT scan

Electron beam CT scan is a non-invasive method and does not require introduction of instruments into the body. It measures the amount of calcium deposited in the plaques of coronary arteries. It can detect blockages of only 10-20% of an artery, which may not be visible in other tests.

Coronary angiography

Coronary angiography by cardiac catheterization is the best way to estimate coronary heart disease. It is an invasive test as it requires a long, thin plastic tube (catheter) to be threaded into the opening of your coronary arteries from a blood vessel in either your groin or your arm. It is the only test that helps a cardiologist know whether to treat you with a by-pass surgery, stent placement, a less-invasive technique like, angioplasty or just medications.

Medical Treatment: Medications

Treatment for coronary artery disease aims towards balancing blood supply to the heart with heart oxygen demand and preventing further damage. Following are the medications which are effective in the treatment of the disease and should only be taken on a doctor’s prescription:

  • Aspirin: Aspirin is a blood thinner. It reduces the possibility of clot formation in the coronary artery and thereby, prevents a heart attack. The common side effects of aspirin are ulcers and bleeding problems.
  • Beta-blockers: They help in reducing the heart’s demand for oxygen by decreasing the heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Nitroglycerin: It reduces the heart’s oxygen demand and also increases the oxygen supply by dilating the coronary arteries. This is how it brings relief from chest pain.
  • Calcium channel blockers: They improve blood flow in the coronary arteries by causing dilation in them. They also lower blood pressure and slow heart rate.
  • ACE inhibitors: Angiotensin-converting enzyme or ACE inhibitors work by dilating blood vessels, increasing blood flow. They are very useful in people with diabetes and those with weakened heart muscles.
  • Statins: These drugs work by reducing the amount of cholesterol and other fats in the blood. This lowers the chance of plaque formation in the lining of the blood vessels and thus, reduces the progression of coronary heart disease. They prevent repeat heart attacks.

Medical Treatment: Invasive Procedures

When medical treatment is not enough for the worsening symptoms of angina, you may need an invasive procedure to clear the blocked artery. These procedures are complicated and are performed by a cardiologist.

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)

This procedure is similar to cardiac catheterization or coronary angiography but it can be used for both treating as well as diagnosing a disease.

  • This time, a stronger tube (guide catheter) is inserted into an artery in the groin or arm and a hair-thin guide wire is threaded via it into the coronary artery.
  • A much thinner catheter is threaded over the guide wire into the blocked artery. There is a tiny balloon at the end of this thinner wire.
  • The balloon is carefully positioned at the blockage and is inflated to widen the artery and improve the blood flow. It is then withdrawn.


A stent comprises of a small, sieved, coil-like metallic tube mounted over a balloon.

  • A stent is inserted and positioned at the blockage. The balloon is inflated, which expands the stent.
  • The balloon is then withdrawn but the stent is kept at that site. It prevents the artery from narrowing again.

Like arteries treated with angioplasty alone, arteries treated with a stent can eventually get blocked again. However, the stent is a longer solution for many people.

How to Coronary Heart Disease Self-Care at Home

27 Jan
By Marie

Coronary Heart Disease Self-Care at Home

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque build up in the interior portion of the coronary arteries. These arteries deliver oxygen-loaded blood to your heart muscle. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. The build-up of plaque occurs over many years.Over time, plaque can thicken or rupture. Hardened plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-loaded blood to the heart.

If the plaque ruptures, a blood clot can form on its surface. A large blood clot can mainly or completely block blood circulation through a coronary artery. Over time, ruptured plaque also hardens and narrows the coronary arteries.If the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, heart attack or an angina can occur.

Coronary Heart Disease Self-Care at Home

Angina is chest pain or distress. It may experience like squeezing and pressure in your chest. The pain also can take place in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion.

A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle is cut off. If blood flow is not restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to expire. Without immediate treatment, a heart attack can lead to severe health problems or death.

Over time, Coronary Heart Disease CHD can weaken the heart muscle and lead to arrhythmias and heart attack. Heart failure is a condition in which your heart can’t supply an adequate amount of blood to meet your body’s needs. Arrhythmia is an inconvenience with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.

Home remedies for coronary heart disease

  1. Garlic: Several studies have found garlic to be beneficial for the condition like coronary heart disease, high cholesterol and, high blood pressure. Garlic improves circulation and has antithrombotic and antiplatelet aggregatory effects.
  • Eat one or two freshly crushed garlic cloves daily. If you find the taste too strong, drink a glass of milk after eating the garlic.
  1. Turmeric: Turmeric can help prevent atherosclerosis. Turmeric has an active ingredient called curcumin that helps maintain heart health by reducing cholesterol oxidation, plaque build-up and clot formation.
  • Use turmeric regularly in your cooking.
  • You can also boil one teaspoon of turmeric powder in one cup of water or milk. Drink it once or twice daily for several weeks to a few months.
  1. Alfalfa:

Alfalfa has been found to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular problems as it helps reduce cholesterol levels and plaque build-up.

  • Alfalfa tea or juice extracted from its leaves is so good to drink it for few times a day for a few months.
  1. Arjuna: Arjuna is an important Ayurvedic herb for heart conditions. It is known as a natural cardio-tonic and cardiac restorative. The herb strengthens the cardiac muscle, decrease arterial congestion.
  • Add one-half teaspoon of Arjuna tree bark powder and a little honey to a glass of lukewarm water. Drink this two times daily for a few months.

Conclusion: you can follow the tips for the natural treatment of coronary heart disease and in the case of emergency you can call your doctor immediately.

What is Plavix 75mg and uses

09 Jan
By Marie

Plavix (Clopidogrel bisulphate) is an anticoagulant drug. It helps in preventing platelets from sticking together and forming a blood clot. Blood clot can be formed in the heart, blood vessels and various other parts of the body. Blood clots are unwanted and dangerous and can lead to death.

Plavix 75mg is used for many purposes. It is used to prevent the formation of blood clots after a recent heart attack or stroke and prevent with cardiovascular disorders.

Plavix keeps the blood from coagulating so as to prevent the formation of unwanted blood clots that can occur in the heart or blood vessels and pose a threat. When you take Plavix, it’s usual that you bleed; this is because of the anti-coagulant action of this drug.

Plavix can be used in the treatment of chest pain due to heart problems, poor circulation in legs in peripheral arterial disease, heart attack or stroke. It can be used alone or in combination with aspirin after a current episode of heart attack or stroke.

There are certain genetic factors in the body that have an impact on how the body breaks Plavix 75mg. Your doctor will examine and test your certain genetic conditions and then he can see that whether Plavix 75mg is suitable and safe for you to use or not. You should always take Plavix on a doctor’s prescription.

Be careful while taking Plavix when you are already taking some prescribed or un-prescribed medicines, as this can result in bad drug interactions. Your doctor will adjust your treatment plan according to the other medications you may be taking. Certain drugs which lower acid levels in your stomach like, omeprazole, esomeprazole, Nexium etc. can have interactions with Plavix.

You should not use Plavix mg if you suffer from active or heavy bleeding like in case of: stomach ulcers or bleeding in the brain which can be due to head injury. Do not use Plavix is you are allergic to Clopidogrel or other constituents of the drug, Plavix. If you are pregnant or planning to become then don’t use Plavix as this is could be harmful for your baby. If you need to undergo a surgery or dental treatment, inform your surgeon or dentist that you take Plavix.

What are the possible side effects of Plavix?

Plavix can lead to serious side-effects. Look for medical help if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Eye disorders: eye haemorrhage, haemorrhage from the conjunctiva of the eye, retinal haemorrhage.
  • Skin problems: eczema, itching, rash, acute Pustular eruptions on skin, allergic reactions caused by a drug, allergic reactions causing serum sickness, discoloured spots and small elevations of the skin, Erythema multiforme, bleeding from wound, inflammation of the skin with blisters, life threatening allergic reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, bruise, redness of skin, skin disease characterized by swollen itching lesions.
  • Disorders of the respiratory system: nosebleed, bleeding from the respiratory tract, bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, pneumonia with high amount of eosinophil white blood cells.
  • Liver disorders: abnormal liver function tests, acute liver failure, hepatitis.
  • Kidney diseases including bloody urine
  • Pancreas disorders: pancreatitis
  • Disorders of the GIT tract: taste problems, painful, red or swollen mouth, bleeding of the stomach or intestines, bleeding in the abdomen, inflammation of the large intestine, stomach ulcer, ulcer of the duodenum, diarrhoea.
  • Disorders of the central nervous system: headache, confusion, hallucination, haemorrhage within the skull, low blood counts due to bone marrow failure.
  • Musculoskeletal disorders: joint pain, arthritis, vasculitis, muscle pain.
  • Diseases of blood and blood vessels: acquired disease of all cells in the blood, acquired haemophilia, haemorrhage, decreased blood platelets, deficiency of granulocytes (a type of red blood cell) and increased eosinophils in the blood, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and collection of clotted blood in an organ, space or tissue.

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) – TTP is a blood clotting problem. TTP can occur within 2 weeks of consumption of Plavix 75mg. There is formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and can happen anywhere else in the body too. TTP is a very serious disease and needs immediate treatment as it can causes death.

What is the most important information I should know about Plavix?

  1. Plavix may not be completely effective for people who:
  • have certain genetic conditions which have an impact on the breakdown of Plavix inside the body.

Your doctor may check you for such genetic conditions to make sure that Plavix is right for you.

  • who take certain medicines like stomach acid reducers, NSAIDS (Non-Steroidal Non-Inflammatory Drugs), anti-depressants etc.

Your doctor may change your treatment plan to make sure that Plavix, when used in presence of other medicines, does not result into drug reaction.

  1. Plavix can result into severe bleeding which can be fatal. Plavix lowers the chances of blood clot formation as it is a blood thinner. While using Plavix , you may bruise and bleed more easily, it will take longer than normal for bleeding to cease and you are more likely to suffer from nosebleed.

Call your doctor for help if you notice any of these signs while taking Plavix:

  • bloody urine
  • red or black stools (like tar)
  • unexpected bleeding or bleeding that lasts longer than usual
  • an unexplained occurrence of bruises
  • a cough up blood or blood lumps
  • bloody vomit or your vomit looks like coffee grounds

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before I take Plavix?

Before you start your treatment with Plavix, make sure you tell your doctor if you:

  • had or have a stomach ulcer
  • had or have bleeding problems
  • plan to undergo a surgery or dental treatment
  • are pregnant or planning pregnancy
  • are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed. Although it’s not clear whether Plavix passes into breast milk, you should not take Plavix and breastfeed together without talking to your doctor.
  • Have had an allergy to any of the medicines taken earlier to treat the disease.

If you are planning to undergo a surgery or dental work, inform your surgeon or dentist that you take Plavix. They should talk to the doctor who has prescribed Plavix for you before you have the surgery or any invasive procedure.

Tell your doctor about all the vitamins, prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs and herbal drugs that you take.

How should I take Clopidogrel Plavix?

  • Plavix is a prescription drug. It should only be taken on prescription and as per the instructions are given by a doctor.
  • Talk to your doctor before changing your dose or stop the intake of Plavix. Stopping of Plavix suddenly may increase your risk of getting a heart attack or stroke.
  • Plavix should be taken in combination with aspirin, only when recommended by your doctor.
  • If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it’s almost time for the next one. Take the next dose on scheduled time only. Do not take 2 doses of Plavix at the same time until told by your doctor to do so.
  • If by mistake you take more doses of Plavix, then rush to your doctor for diagnosis.
  • If you have to undergo a surgery or plan to have one, talk to your doctor about stopping Plavix. Your doctor should ask you to stop Plavix few days before the surgery so as to prevent too much bleeding while surgery.

What should I avoid while taking Plavix?

While taking Plavix, you should take care of your activities. You should avoid activities which increase your risk of getting a cut, bruise or any other sort of injury. Plavix is a blood thinner and it’s action is irreversible. It may cause excessive bleeding and delayed healing.

Take extra care while shaving or brushing your teeth to prevent bleeding.

Avoid drinking alcohol as alcohol increases your risk of bleeding in stomach or intestines.

What other drugs will affect Plavix?

Many other medications can increase your risk of bleeding. Talk to your doctor if you take aspirin, especially if you had a heart attack or stroke. Check with your doctor whether it is beneficial to take aspirin in combination with Clopidogrel. Ask your doctor before taking other medicines like stomach acid reducers, anti-depressants, NSAIDS (Non-Steroidal Non-Inflammatory Drugs), etc if you are taking Plavix or plan to take.

Inform your doctor about all the other medications that you take to prevent clotting of blood. These may include:

  • tirofiban, abciximab, eptifibatide;
  • warfarin, heparin, coumadin;
  • enoxaparin, tinzaparin, dalteparin;
  • ticlopididne, fondaparinux;
  • urokinase or abbokinase.

Inform your doctor about all the medications which you have started or stopped taking while taking Clopidogrel, especially:

  • Central Nervous System stimulants like, modafinil, Armodafinil;
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors like fluoxetine, fluvoxamine;
  • gemfibrozil;
  • isoniazid;
  • cancer medications like, letrozole, tositumomab, dasatinib, or ibritumomab;
  • stomach acid reducers like, omeprazole, esomeprazole, Cimetidine;
  • antifungal medications like voriconazole, ketoconazole, Fluconazole;
  • HIV medications like, etravirine, tipranavir, delavirdine, efavirenz;
  • Seizure medications like Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) or feblamate (Felbatol).

Make sure you tell your doctor about all the medications you take including prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs, vitamins, herbal supplements etc. you can buy Plavix 75 online at low price from

How Crestor 20mg can save you from heart attack

06 Jan
By Marie

Crestor is a Hypolipidemic drug that belongs to the class of medications known as Statins and HMG-CoA inhibitors. Crestor is a generic drug rosuvastatin and is an ideal drug for lowering of cholesterol and thus preventing heart attack. Crestor is the fifth highest selling medicine in U.S.A.

Cardiovascular disease is the most widespread health problem causing mortality. Cardiovascular problems arise due to an increase in cholesterol levels or Dyslipidemia.

Typically, there is an increase in bad cholesterol levels, i.e., LDL (Low density lipoprotein) and decrease in good cholesterol HDL (High density lipoprotein) levels along with high triglyceride levels. This all leads to plaque formation as there is an excessive accumulation of fat in arteries that hinders the normal blood flow and causes cardiovascular problems.

How high cholesterol levels causes heart attack?

Heart attack is a very deadly disease that affects lives of people all over the world. The major reason behind heart attack is high levels of bad cholesterol. Heart attack is a kind of an acute, sudden and critical condition that arises due to the building up of plaque like structures in arteries carrying blood. Increased LDL levels and decreased HDL levels causes deposition of fat rich plaques in the arteries. All this leads to clot formation that decreases the blood and oxygen supply to the heart and results in a heart attack.

How does Crestor work?

Crestor is widely accepted as it has shown excellent patient compliance. This drug is also given post heart attack as it prevents future clogging of the heart. Hypolipidemic drugs like Crestor really helps to lower the bad cholesterol levels in the body and increases the HDL levels.Crestor 20mg works by following two mechanisms:

  • The cholesterol production by the liver is reduced as Crestor inhibits the enzymes necessary for the working of liver
  • Crestor also increases the uptake and metabolism of the cholesterol already present in the blood

Who cannot take this drug?

This drug might not be suitable for all people. Hence you should tell your doctor about any medical conditions you might have gone through or are going so that the doctor may decide whether to give this drug to you or not. Pregnant or nursing women, people over the age of 70 years, people who have galactose intolerance or those having or have had very high blood pressure are not advised to take this drug. People having diabetes, kidney problems or hyperthyroidism should not take this drug.

Even during the course of using the drug, it may become unsuitable for some; in such a case one should immediately inform the prescriber of the drug as soon as possible.

General information about your medicine:

  • Crestor comes in various preparations like 5mg, 10mg, 20mg and 40 mg etc.
  • The lowest and most recommended dose is 5 mg and the maximum is 40 mg.
  • Crestor 10 mg can be taken at any time of the day, with or without food.
  • Crestor controls the hypertension but it doesn’t treat the root cause.
  • Take the list of all the drugs that are needed to be avoided while using Crestor.
  • One should avoid taking alcohol completely while using Crestor.

High blood pressure overview

05 Jan
By Marie

High blood pressure is a widespread disease in which blood flows from beginning to end in the blood vessels (arteries) at the higher pressure than normal pressures.

Measuring Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the power of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart push’s blood. High blood pressure, is known as hypertension, happens when this force is too elevated. Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for adult, teen, children. They use a gauge, electronic sensor or stethoscope, and a blood pressure cuff. With this equipment, they measure:

Systolic Pressure:  Blood pressure when the heart beats while pumping blood

Diastolic Pressure:  Blood pressure when the heart is at relax mode between beats

Health care workers write blood pressure numbers with the systolic number above the diastolic number. For example:-

118/76 mmHg
People read “118 over 76”
milli meters of mercury

Normal Blood Pressure: Normal blood pressure for adults is defined as a systolic pressure below 120 mmHg and a diastolic pressure below 80 mmHg. It is common for blood pressures to fluctuate when you wake up, sleep, or are nervous or exited. When you are energetic, it is normal for your blood pressure to amplify. However, once the activity stops, your blood pressure get back to your standard baseline range.

Blood pressure on average rises with age and body size. Newborn infants often have exceptionally low blood pressure range, that taken as normal for babies, while grown-up teens have numbers similar to adults.

Abnormal Blood Pressure

Abnormal elevation in blood pressure is defined as having blood pressures higher than 120/80 mmHg. The subsequent table below outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels.

Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults

Stages Systolic
(top number)
(bottom number)
Prehypertension 120–139 OR 80–89
High blood pressure Stage 1 140–159 OR 90–99
High blood pressure Stage 2 160 or higher OR 100 or higher

The ranges in the chart are blood pressure guides for adults who do not have any short-term severe illnesses. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg.

Although blood pressure increases seen in pre-hypertension are fewer than those used to diagnose high blood pressure, pre-hypertension can develop to high blood pressure and should be taken critically. Time after time high blood pressure weakens and damages your blood vessels, which can lead to tricky situation.

Types of High Blood Pressure

There are 2 main types of high blood pressure: First is primary high blood pressure and second is secondary high blood pressure.

Primary High Blood Pressure

Primary, or necessary, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. This category of high blood pressure tends to extend over years as someone ages.

Secondary High Blood Pressure

Secondary high blood pressure is caused by an additional medical condition or use of certain medicines. This type usually resolves after the cause is treated or isolated.

High blood pressure causes

The exact cause of high blood pressure is not well-known, but quite a lot of factors and conditions may play a role in its development, such as:

  • Smoking
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Too much salt in the diet
  • Too much alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day)
  • Stress
  • Older age
  • Genetics
  • Family history of high blood pressure
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Adrenal and thyroid disorder
  • Sleep apnea

Other factors are environmental factors: Air pollution may cause high blood pressure regardless to how long you are exposed to it.

Inhaling air pollutants may show the way to the development of high blood pressure, according to an analysis available in the American Heart Association’s (AHA) journal Hypertension. Earlier studies have attempted to link air pollution to high blood pressure, commonly known as hypertension; however, the results were controversial and unpredictable. The recent study found that both short- and long-term exposure to air pollutants commonly associated with coal airborne dust, burning, vehicle exhaust, and dirt may influence whether somebody will develop high blood pressure.

 High blood pressure symptoms

In the vast majority of cases, there are no clear symptoms of high blood pressure hypertension, which can lead to kidney failure, heart stroke, heart attack, and eye problems if untreated. The only way to come across if you have high blood pressure is to get your blood pressure checked on a regular basis. This is particularly important if you have a close family member who has high blood pressure

If your blood pressure is extremely high, there may be assured symptoms to look out for, including:

  • A severe headache
  • Fatigue  or confusion
  • vision problems
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeats
  • Blood in the urine

If you have any of these hypertension symptoms, see a heart specialist without any further delay. You could be having a hypertensive crisis that could lead to a heart attack or stroke.

When to Seek Medical Care

Hypertensive emergency

A hypertensive urgent situation exists when blood pressure reaches levels that are destructing organs. Hypertensive emergencies, in general, occur at blood pressure level exceeding 180 systolic OR 120 diastolic but can take place at even lower levels in patients whose blood pressure had not been up to that time high.

The consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure in this array can be harsh and comprise of:-

  • Stroke
  • Heart attack
  • Memory loss
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Damage to the eyes and kidneys
  • Loss of kidney function
  • Eclampsia
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Aortic dissection
  • Angina

If you get a blood pressure reading of 180 or higher on top or 110 or higher value on the bottom, and are having any symptoms of likely organ damage (chest pain, shortness of breath, backbone pain, numbness/weakness, change in visualization, difficulty in speaking) do not wait to see if your pressure comes down on its own. Search for emergency medical help without delay. Call 9-1-1. If you can’t access the emergency medical services, have someone drive you to the hospital straight away.

High blood pressure treatment

You can take valuable steps to lower your blood pressure with changes to your lifestyle and by taking prescriptions.

In all cases, you can benefit from making some simple lifestyle changes. You are also suggested to take medication will depend on your blood pressure level and your risk of developing a cardiovascular disease, such as a heart attack, kidney failure or stroke.

  • If your blood pressure is constantly above 140/90mmHg (or 135/85mmHg at residence) but your danger of cardiovascular disease is low – you should be able to minor your blood pressure by making some changes to your lifestyle.
  • If your blood pressure is constantly above 140/90mmHg (or 135/85mmHg at home) but below 160/100mmHg – you will be offered medication to minor your blood pressure if you have the active or high risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • If your blood pressure is constantly above 160/100mmHg – you will be suggested for medication to lower your blood pressure.

Lifestyle changes

Below are several changes you could make to your lifestyle to decrease high blood pressure. Some of these will minor your blood pressure in a matter of weeks, others may take longer.

  • Cut your salt intake
  • Eat a healthy, low-fat, balanced diet, including lots of fresh fruit and vegetables
  • Do yoga
  • Be active
  • Cut down on alcohol.
  • Lose weight
  • Stop smoking
  • Drink less coffee, tea or other caffeine-rich drinks such as cola

 High Blood Pressure Medications

There are numerous classes of blood pressure medications. Each class lower the blood pressure in a different manner.


Diuretics enhance urination which reduces the sodium and fluid in the body. That can help minor the blood pressure because it lowers blood amount. Mild hypertension can some time be treated using diuretics alone. Examples of diuretics include:

  • Bumetanide
  • Chlorthalidone


Beta-blockers lower blood pressure by acting directly on the heart. These high blood pressure medications reduce heart rate and force of pumping, as well as reduce blood volume. Beta blockers include:

  • Acebutolol
  • Tenormin

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin is a hormone in the body that causes blood vessels to narrow. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors diminish the production of angiotensin and, in turn, that helps minor blood pressure. Examples of ACE inhibitors include:

  • Benazepril hydrochloride
  • Captopril

Calcium channel blockers

Calcium increases the potency and force of contractions in the heart and blood vessels. Blocking its access to smooth muscle tissue reduces this consequence. Calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure by soothing blood vessels and reducing heart rate. Examples of calcium channel blockers include:

  • Amlodipine besylate
  • Clevidipine

Anti-platelet drugs- Clopidogrel

15 Dec
By Marie

These are among the most widely used drugs in the world. Antiplatelet drugs are the part of the class of drugs that are used to decrease the platelet aggregation. The drug is quite effective in preventing the formation of thrombus. Antiplatelet drugs are used to decrease the heart attack risks and prevent the strokes. The drugs are also known to treat those people who are suffering from the problems of blocked arteries in the legs.

What are Antiplatelet drugs and who needs them?

Antiplatelet drugs are used to prevent the blood platelets from clumping together to form a blood clot. Blood platelets clump together if you bleed to form a mesh or network-like structure to prevent the blood from flowing endlessly. It is an essential feature of blood to form the clot to prevent the loss of blood, but in some people, blood clot can be formed in the arteries or veins in places where they have become very narrow due to the deposition of fat or cholesterol.

Such area where the fat/cholesterol deposition occurs is called plaque. When the blood platelets flow over these areas of plaques, then they clump together to form a clot. As the artery gets blocked completely due to the formation of clot and deposition of plaque, then the heart muscles have to work more hard to take the blood through the artery. This can initiate a mini-stroke or a stroke if the clot is formed in the artery located in the brain or connecting the brain with the body. Similarly, a patient with coronary artery disease can face heart attack or stroke due to the poor blood supply.

Antiplatelet drugs help to prevent such instances. These drugs prevent the potential risks of clot formation.

People who need antiplatelet drugs:

Certain people might need an antiplatelet drug treatment due to various health reasons. A few people who need antiplatelet drugs are:

  1. People who are at a high risk of having a heart disease, but have not been diagnosed yet
  2. People who are having a heart disease along with ‘stable’ angina.
  3. People who have a heart disease, but with an unstable angina pain
  4. People who have acute coronary syndrome
  5. People who have undergone a bypass surgery/an angioplasty
  6. People who have had mini strokes
  7. People who have had strokes
  8. People who have coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease

Classification or different types of antiplatelet drugs:

The different types of antiplatelet drugs are classified into four types:

  1. ADP antagonists/thienopyridines:
  1. COX inhibitor drugs:
  • Aspirin
  1. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors:
  • Dipyridamole
  1. GP lib/via inhibitors:
  • Tirofiban
  • Eptifibatide
  • Abciximab

How to decide which is the best antiplatelet drug suited for your condition:

The doctor will take into account many things before he decides the best antiplatelet medicine suited for your use. The doctor will consider the risks or side-effects it might pose to your health.  Safety issues like allergy and effectiveness are also considered. Cost issues are also taken into account before choosing a drug. So taking different factors into consideration like effectiveness, safety, side effects and cost, following drugs have suggested under different clinical circumstances:

  1. Aspirin Plus Clopidogrel: for people with coronary artery disease/ had cases of heart attack or stroke or those who have stent implantation
  2. Clopidogrel only: for those who are allergic to aspirin or for those who are diagnosed with coronary heart disease
  3. Aspirin only: for those with peripheral vascular disease
  4. Aspirin/ aspirin plus dipyridine(Extended-release) / clopidogrel: for those you have had stroke or mini-strokes

The mechanism of action of different antiplatelet drugs is different. If too many or multiple antiplatelet drugs are used then drug toxicity chances, like gastrointestinal bleeding, also increases.

What is Clopidogrel

14 Dec
By Marie

Clopidogrel is a blood clotting preventive drug that acts against the platelets present in the blood circulating in the body. This drug is known to inhibit the ability of the platelets to clump together to form a blood clot. It is a drug belonging to thienopyridine class of antiplatelet agents.

About Clopidogrel:

Clopidogrel drug is used in the prevention of heart attack and stroke in patients who have a history of coronary artery bypass graft-CABG, balloon angioplasty, etc. It is also used in the treatment of chest pain and angina. Clopidogrel works by preventing the blood by irreversibly binding with P2Y12 receptors that are present on the platelets. This prevents ADP or Adenosine diphosphate to activate the platelets and blood clot is not formed.

What is Blood Clotting?

Blood flows throughout our body to provide essential nutrients and oxygen to different parts of our body. But whenever there is an injury or cut on the body, the blood flow quickly shuts off to avoid unwanted spillage and loss of blood. This is called a blood clot that is very essential and lifesaving, but sometimes these blood clots may also be formed when they are not needed. Such blood clots can cause a heart attack or stroke. Blood clots in the arteries and veins may prevent the flow of blood through the blood vessels promoting stroke or attack.

How to order it online

You can order the drugs containing clopidogrel under two brand names on our site The drugs you can buy online are:


Some faqs about the drug:

Why is this medication prescribed?

The medicine clopidogrel is prescribed to the persons who are at a very high risk of developing heart-related problems like:

  • Myocardial infarction with st-elevation
  • Non-st elevation myocardial infarction
  • Unstable angina
  • Stable ischemic heart disease
  • Thrombosis etc.

How should this medicine be used?

Take the drug exactly as directed. Swallow the tablet whole with a glass full of water. Do not break the tablet or crush it. You can take the drug with or without food.Take the tablet at the same time each day, so as to avoid any missed dose.  Taking the tablet at the same time each day should become your habit, and you should avoid any missed dose or overdose.

 Other uses for this medicine:

Clopidogrel is also used for the prevention of blood clots in the blood vessels. But always ask your doctor before you ever take this drug due to the heart risks associated.

What special dietary instructions I follow?

Clopidogrel drug should be taken with a healthy and nutritious diet, and one should not change the diet unless the doctor asks you so, and you should continue your normal healthy diet.

What special precautions should I follow?

Here are a few things that you must keep in your mind before taking this drug:

  • Do not take this drug if you are allergic to it or any other ingredient of this drug
  • Ask your doctor if you have ulcers that are bleeding, bleeding in brain and any other kind of severe bleeding problems
  • Avoid this drug if you have any kidney or liver disease
  • Do not take this drug if you are pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Avoid the drug if you have had any dental surgery or any tooth problem
  • Take special precautions should be taken while this drug to avoid any cut or injury that could lead to unstoppable bleeding.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

If you forget to take the dose at the right time, then take the dose as soon as you remember. But if it is too late and already the time for next dose then skip the dose and take the next dose at its scheduled time. Do not double up the dose to counter the missed one.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Tell your doctor as soon as possible if you notice any of the following side effects:

  • Headaches
  • Persistent nausea
  • Mood changes
  • Bloody stools
  • Vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Lightheadedness, fainting
  • Sudden hearing loss
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Pale skin
  • Sudden vision loss
  • Coughing up blood or vomiting

In above cases, you must go for immediate medical help. Do not get alarmed by the list. You may /may not experience all of them. Tell your doctor immediately in the above situations.

What should I know about storage of this medicine?

Always keep this drug in an airtight container and that too away from the reach of children. The medicines should be kept away from the excess of heat and moisture.

In case of emergency/overdose

In those cases when you feel you have accidently taken the extra dose then you should contact your doctor immediately and take his consultations.

What other information should I know?

  • Never give the medication to anyone even if the symptoms are similar
  • Never change the dose without asking the doctor
  • Take a diet full of healthy nutrients
  • In the case of any confusions ask your doctor for consultation.

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